2013年5月27日 星期一

Bluetooth History & BT4.0 (BLE)

BLE now has become a trend for future device which aiming to have longer battery life time and applications
(BLE~Bluetooth Low Energy), which allow device to carry smaller battery in device.
It can not only downsize the product design, but also be much closer to environmental friendly



Started from iPhone4S, now there are more and more handheld devices are carrying BLE.
(iPhone 4s, iPhone 5, New iPad, iPad mini, New iPod touch.).
For Android system, Samsung has launched SDK
http://raytaccorp.blogspot.tw/2013/05/samsung-ble-sdk-bluetooth-40.html
According to Google I/O 2013,  also confirmed they will included BLE in this year.
http://raytaccorp.blogspot.tw/2013/05/google-announces-bluetooth-smart-ready.html
Win8 and latest Win7 are also Bluetooth 4.0-compatible PC

Apparently, BLE will be the main stream For handheld device.


According to the report:
 http://ankitmathur111.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/bluetooth-2-0-3-0-and-4-0-discussed/

According to Mike Foley, executive director of the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group), the key new feature of Bluetooth 4.0 is its low-energy technology. This lets device manufacturers replace proprietary sensor technology with Bluetooth, which is a more widely adopted standard. An obvious example is in the health and fitness category. Most pedometers, heart rate straps, and blood glucose monitors are designed to only talk to a specific wristwatch or control unit. If these same devices had Bluetooth 4.0, they could speak to any Bluetooth 4.0 device, be it phone or computer, without requiring an intermediary.

This version of Bluetooth is thus targeted specifically for small battery-operated devices like Nike+ sensors, Fitbits, and similar products that require almost no power. Foley envisions that gyms and fitness centers would have Bluetooth-enabled computers so that you could automatically upload your fitness stats to the cloud after you finish your workout, for example. The first such device is a Dayton heart-rate chest strap using a Bluetooth 4.0 chip from Nordic Semiconductor.


History of BT 

Bluetooth v1.0 and v1.0B

Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level), which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments.

Bluetooth v1.1

  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2002
  • Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.
  • Added possibility of non-encrypted channels.
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).

Bluetooth v1.2

This version is backward compatible with 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following:
  • Faster Connection and Discovery
  • Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH), which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence.
  • Higher transmission speeds in practice, up to 721 kbit/s, than in v1.1.
  • Extended Synchronous Connections (eSCO), which improve voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets, and may optionally increase audio latency to provide better concurrent data transfer.
  • Host Controller Interface (HCI) operation with three-wire UART.
  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2005
  • Introduced Flow Control and Retransmission Modes for L2CAP.

Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR

This version of the Bluetooth Core Specification was released in 2004 and is backward compatible with the previous version 1.2. The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 Mbit/s, although the practical data transfer rate is 2.1 Mbit/s. EDR uses a combination of GFSK and Phase Shift Keyingmodulation (PSK) with two variants, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK. EDR can provide a lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle.
The specification is published as “Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR” which implies that EDR is an optional feature. Aside from EDR, there are other minor improvements to the 2.0 specification, and products may claim compliance to “Bluetooth v2.0″ without supporting the higher data rate. At least one commercial device states “Bluetooth v2.0 without EDR” on its data sheet.

Bluetooth v2.1 + EDR

Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 + EDR is fully backward compatible with 1.2, and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26, 2007.
The headline feature of 2.1 is secure simple pairing (SSP): this improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security.
2.1 allows various other improvements, including “Extended inquiry response” (EIR), which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection; and sniff subrating, which reduces the power consumption in low-power mode.

Bluetooth v3.0 + HS

Version 3.0 + HS of the Bluetooth Core Specification was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on April 21, 2009. Bluetooth 3.0+HS provides theoretical data transfer speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s,though not over the Bluetooth link itself. Instead, the Bluetooth link is used for negotiation and establishment, and the high data rate traffic is carried over a collocated 802.11 link.
The main new feature is AMP (Alternate MAC/PHY), the addition of 802.11 as a high speed transport. The High-Speed part of the specification is not mandatory, and hence only devices sporting the “+HS” will actually support the Bluetooth over 802.11 high-speed data transfer. A Bluetooth 3.0 device without the “+HS” suffix will not support High Speed, and needs to only support a feature introduced in Core Specification Version 3.0  or earlier Core Specification Addendum 1.

L2CAP Enhanced modes
Enhanced Retransmission Mode (ERTM) implements reliable L2CAP channel, while Streaming Mode (SM) implements unreliable channel with no retransmission or flow control. Introduced in Core Specification Addendum 1.
Alternate MAC/PHY
Enables the use of alternative MAC and PHYs for transporting Bluetooth profile data. The Bluetooth radio is still used for device discovery, initial connection and profile configuration, however when large quantities of data need to be sent, the high speed alternate MAC PHY 802.11 (typically associated with Wi-Fi) will be used to transport the data. This means that the proven low power connection models of Bluetooth are used when the system is idle, and the faster radio is used when large quantities of data need to be sent. AMP links require enhanced L2CAP modes.
Unicast Connectionless Data
Permits service data to be sent without establishing an explicit L2CAP channel. It is intended for use by applications that require low latency between user action and reconnection/transmission of data. This is only appropriate for small amounts of data.
Enhanced Power Control
Updates the power control feature to remove the open loop power control, and also to clarify ambiguities in power control introduced by the new modulation schemes added for EDR. Enhanced power control removes the ambiguities by specifying the behaviour that is expected. The feature also adds closed loop power control, meaning RSSI filtering can start as the response is received. Additionally, a “go straight to maximum power” request has been introduced. This is expected to deal with the headset link loss issue typically observed when a user puts their phone into a pocket on the opposite side to the headset.

Bluetooth 4.0 (BLE) Bluetooth low energy

This version's development
  • Ease of implementation and multi-vendor interoperability
  • Ultra-low peak, average and idle mode power consumption
  • Low cost of integration
  • Power handling
  • Resistance to interference
Bluetooth Low Energy technology extends the personal area network (PAN) to include Bluetooth enabled devices that are powered by small, coin-cell batteries. With low energy technology, sports and health care equipment, human interface (HIDs) and entertainment devices are enhanced. The technology can be built into products such as watches, wireless keyboards, gaming and sports sensors, which can then connect and communicate with host devices, such as mobile phones and personal computers.



Edied by Raytac Corporation (www.raytac.com)
BLE (BT4.0) by Nordic nRF51822 Chip


2013年5月17日 星期五

Samsung BLE SDK (Bluetooth 4.0)


Quoted from: http://developer.samsung.com/ble

Prior to Android, Samsung has released BLE SDK

 Samsung BLE SDK beta

Bluetooth low energy (BLE) is a wireless computer network technology which is aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, security, and home entertainment industries1). Compared to "Classic" Bluetooth, BLE is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and lower cost, whilst maintaining a similar communication range2).
Samsung BLE SDK allows you to develop your own BLE applications which use the Bluetooth Low Energy Client and Server based Protocols. Developers can utilize rich set of API’s provided by our framework to develop Bluetooth 4.0 based applications.

Architecture

The APIs provided by our sdk gives a set of standard GATT procedures and is generic enough to be used with all Bluetooth LE Client and Server based profiles. Below is the basic architecture of our Bluetooth Low Energy stack and framework.
Samsung BLE architecture uses Bluedroid stack which coupled with Samsung framework provides the developer with wide variety of APIs to choose from and provides greater control over Gatt Services, characteristics and descriptors. The framework exposes distinct client and server based classes which can be imported by the application to implement the BLE profiles.
※This SDK is for Samsung Galaxy devices with Android 4.2 and above.

Use Cases

  • Heart Rate Profile(HRP)
    Heart Rate Profile(HRP)
  • Proximity Profile(PXP)
    Proximity Profile(PXP)
  • Alert Notification Profile(ANP)
    Alert Notification Profile(ANP)
Profiles are high level definitions that define how services can be used to enable an application or use case. For further information on these profiles, visit : https://www.bluetooth.org/Technical/Specifications/adopted.htm













Proximity Finder (Lost Finder)~BLE (Bluetooth 4.0) Application


I have evaluated several lost finder products.
To my suprised, the new company called as StickNfind is the one which is the most usful one.
https://www.sticknfind.com/

The design normally is set as working in certain distance far.
Excepting StickNFind, other suppliers proximity finder mostly has misworking happened.
For example, when set alarm at 5M, but start woring in 1M or 2M in actual case.
This problem may due to the interference of mobile, WiFi or other wireless device.

Market Products Testing


Therefore, promixity finder actually not only a works for APP (unfortunately most suppliers think so), but BLE design is also a task to enhance the accurancy! Only with the accurancy, this products may able to spread to consumer market widely!


StickNFind 's product
Using Nordic 51822 BLE chip



Google Announces Bluetooth® Smart Ready Support for Android Coming Later this Year


Quoted from: http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/Press-Releases-Detail.aspx?ItemID=167


Today at Google I/O, Google’s annual developer conference, Google announced that in the coming months, Android will include native support for Bluetooth Smart Ready and Bluetooth Smart devices. Phones and tablets with a dual-mode Bluetooth chip running the coming version of Android will qualify as Bluetooth Smart Ready. Bluetooth Smart Ready is the premium designation for devices that are compatible with virtually any Bluetooth enabled product, from keyboards or audio headphones, to the next generation of ultra power-efficient Bluetooth Smart appcessories, like the FitBit Flex or the Pebble watch, coming to market now.

“Working with the big OS providers to offer native support for Bluetooth Smart Ready has been a major initiative within the Bluetooth SIG – we’re thrilled to welcome Android to the family,” said Suke Jawanda, CMO of the Bluetooth SIG. “It’s the hardware and software support that enables Bluetooth Smart Ready devices to seamlessly connect with the billions of Bluetooth devices in use today, and the exploding new market of Bluetooth Smart appcessories. With today’s announcement, Google joins Apple, Microsoft and BlackBerry in providing native software support which is great news for phone and tablet manufacturers, application developers and ultimately, consumers who count on Bluetooth to connect more of their technology.”
 
The native Android support for Bluetooth Smart Ready technology available in the coming months means Bluetooth Smart developers will have an easy way to connect their devices to and distribute their applications within the massive Android ecosystem. Developers will be able to use the new Android API to feed data collected from Bluetooth Smart appcessories, like fitness monitors or medical devices, to their apps running on Bluetooth Smart Ready products, like smart phones or tablets. Once released, any new Bluetooth enabled phone or tablet running Android and featuring a dual mode Bluetooth radio chip will be Smart Ready.
 
ABI projects the market for Bluetooth appcessories (defined as an accessory device with a companion application) to grow from 220 million units in 2013 to nearly one billion in 2016. To support this growth, the Bluetooth SIG has launched a Bluetooth developer enablement initiative which includes a web portal featuring a community forum, training and other resources to make designing with Bluetooth easier and faster. The Bluetooth Quick Start Kit (available now) serves as an introduction to Bluetooth Smart technology. For the Android developer community, the Bluetooth Application Accelerator (coming soon) will provide detailed implementation and developer guidelines to speed time-to-market for appcessory devices.
 
“The real winner here is the consumer,” adds Jawanda. “Bluetooth is truly the people’s technology – it is recognized, trusted, and can already be found in the end user’s pocket. Additionally, it is the only wireless technology to offer the ultra low power consumption and ubiquity needed to bring connectivity to the millions of appcessories coming to market. The Bluetooth Smart products we are going to see in the coming months are going to make life better, give more insight, and enable us all to make more informed decisions.”
 
About Bluetooth® Wireless Technology
Bluetooth wireless technology is the global wireless standard enabling simple, secure connectivity for an expanding range of devices and serves as the backbone of the connected world. Bluetooth Smart Ready and Bluetooth Smart branded devices, through an updatable platform and low power consumption, create new application opportunities for the mobile phone, consumer electronics, PC, automotive, health & fitness and smart home industries. With over two billion devices shipping annually, Bluetooth is the wireless technology of choice for developers, product manufacturers, and consumers worldwide. Backed by industry leading companies, the Bluetooth SIG empowers over 18,500 member companies to collaborate, innovate and guide Bluetooth wireless technology. For more information please visit www.bluetooth.com

Google宣布Android作業系統將於今年支援 Bluetooth® Smart Ready


Quoted from: http://apexscott.blog.ithome.com.tw/post/7661/212237


Google於今日在其一年一度的開發者大會 - I/O大會上,宣布未來幾個月內Android作業系統的版本,將可支援Bluetooth Smart ReadyBluetooth Smart裝置。未來手機與平板電腦若具備雙模藍牙晶片,並搭載新版Android作業系統,即符合Bluetooth Smart Ready標準。Bluetooth Smart Ready為一進階標準,符合此標準的裝置可與市面上任何藍牙產品相容,包括鍵盤、耳機,以及即將在市場上推出的次世代節能Bluetooth Smart智慧配件(Bluetooth Smart appcessory)等,如FitBit Flex手環、Pebble手錶等。
 
Bluetooth SIG行銷長卓文泰(Suke Jawanda)表示:「與主要大型的作業系統供應商合作,發展支援Bluetooth Smart Ready的裝置一直是Bluetooth SIG致力的目標 。我們對Android作業系統的加入感到非常興奮。透過軟硬體的支援,Bluetooth Smart Ready裝置可與眾多藍牙產品無縫連結。透過今日Google的宣布,Google將加入Apple、微軟及BlackBerry的行列,針對Bluetooth Smart Ready提供原生軟體支援。這項宣布將使手機與平板電腦製造商、應用開發商,以及最終透過藍牙技術連結裝置的消費者受惠。」。
 
Android作業系統在未來的版本將可支援Bluetooth Smart Ready,讓Bluetooth Smart裝置開發商可透過強大的Android 生態系統,簡便的連結及分發其裝置與應用。應用程式開發商可使用新版Android應用程式介面(API),快速製作使用於智慧型手機、平板電腦等Bluetooth Smart Ready產品的應用程式,輕鬆存取健身記錄器或醫療裝置等Bluetooth Smart智慧配件上的資料。未來任何藍牙手機或平板電腦若搭載新版Android作業系統,並內建雙模藍牙無線晶片,即可為Bluetooth Smart Ready 裝置。
 
市場研究機構ABI預估,從2013年至2016年,藍牙智慧配件(具備應用程式的配件)市場將從2.2億部增至近10億部。為支持未來發展,Bluetooth SIG已推出「藍牙開發者入口網站」(Bluetooth Developer Portal),結合社群、論壇、資源等,讓藍牙相關應用設計更方便、更快速。「藍牙快速入門手冊」(Bluetooth Quick Start Guide)則簡介Bluetooth Smart技術(現已推出)。對於Android開發者社群,「藍牙應用程式開發速成 (Bluetooth Application Accelerator)」(即將推出)將提供詳細的執行與開發原則,縮短智慧配件裝置上市時間。
 
Bluetooth SIG行銷長卓文泰(Suke Jawanda)強調:「消費者將是真正贏家;藍牙技術是全民科技,一直以來備受肯定與信賴,並已普及至眾多用戶;此外,只有藍牙這種耗能極低、無所不在的無線技術能讓市面無數智慧配件彼此連結。未來Bluetooth Smart產品將能讓生活更加美好、並提供更多有用資訊,協助消費者做出最有利的決定」。
 
關於Bluetooth® (藍牙)無線技術
藍牙無線技術是一項全球通用的無線標準,它為越來越多的設備賦予了簡便、安全的連結,同時也是互聯世界的主要技術之一。憑藉可持續更新的軟體平台、功耗更低的優勢,Bluetooth Smart ReadyBluetooth Smart裝置可為行動電話、消費性電子產品、個人電腦、汽車、保健以及智慧家庭產業創造新的應用機會。藍牙設備每年的出貨量高達20億,是全世界企業開發者、產品製造商以及消費者首選的無線技術。在業內龍頭企業的支持下,Bluetooth SIG為超過18,500家會員公司提供了藍牙無線技術合作、創新和指導的授權。更多資訊請造訪www.bluetooth.com

2013年5月16日 星期四

BT 4.0 (BLE) Certificate Application Artical

Quoted From:http://www.hypertaiwan.com.tw/q&a_en.asp

Q:If a pre-qualified module is used while qualifying an end product, will a full RF test be required?
A:If a pre-qualified module is used while qualifying an end product design, please provide the modul's QDID and RF test report so that we can more accurately determine what RF test will be required. Basically, a full RF test will not be necessary; however, if the pre-qualified module in question does not contain internal or external antenna, few RF test cases need be retested (though I don’t quite agree with this part.) Profile Interoperability testing it is always required when qualifying an end product design.
Q:What is Listing Fee?
A:The Listing Fee is a fee that Bluetooth SIG charges for listing a qualified design on the Bluetooth.org web site. There are two levels of listing fees charged by Bluetooth SIG:
1. Promoter/Associate members: $5,000 USD per QDL (Qualified Design Listing)
2. Adaptor members: $10,000 USD per QDL
Q:What is a BQE?
A:BQE is the acronym for Bluetooth Qualification Expert, a professional who has been recognized by the Bluetooth SIG to perform qualification assessments as a service to members.
Q:Is it required to have the QDID marked on the product?
A:According to PRD 2.0, the QDID issued by the Bluetooth SIG must be placed in a conspicuous place on every product implementing the qualified design, in the product documentation, or on the product packaging.
Q:Are there different levels of Bluetooth SIG membership?
A:There are three different types of Bluetooth SIG memberships:
1. Promoter members: Promoter companies are engaged in the development of Bluetooth wireless technology and are represented on the Bluetooth Board of Directors. <
2. Associate members: The cost of membership depends on the size of the member company.
3. Adopter members: Membership is free.
Q:How much is the annual fee for an Associate member of the Bluetooth SIG?
A:It depends on the size of the company. If the member company’s annual revenue is more than 10 million USD, the membership fee is $35,000 USD per year. If revenue is less than 10 million USD, the fee is $7,500 USD per year.
Q:How does an Adopter-level member upgrade to an Associate-level membership?
A:A company can upgrade its membership level by contacting Bluetooth SIG’s member contact. Someone from Bluetooth SIG will make contact with instructions on the necessary steps.Go to Bluetooth.org -> Membership -> Membership Benefits -> Member Relations (located in the first paragraph of the content) and you will be linked to the direct email to SIG's Member Relations personnel.
Q:Why is there no available QDID to use when the listing fee is paid in full?
A:Normally, it will take 1-2 business days to complete the wire transaction. If there is still no QDID available for use 4 business days after the wire transaction, contact the Bluetooth SIG immediately to find out the cause of the delay, or contact the assigned BQE for further assistance.
Q:How long will the testing take?
A:In general, the testing will take about two weeks, assuming the tests run smoothly. The actual test-time needed depends on the condition of the sample and how much testing is required.
Q:What kind of information should be provided for the quotation?
A:The information needed for a quotation should include the Product Name, the QDID of the Pre-qualified designs used, the profiles the product supports, and the Bluetooth System Specification for which the product/design is qualified.
Q:Why is the IOP required to be tested?
A:It is required by the Bluetooth SIG that all products to be qualified as End Product shall be IOP tested.
Q:When should the listing fee be paid?
A:Listing fees shall be paid prior to a product being listed.
Q:Will the Product User Manual be uploaded to the Bluetooth SIG’s web site?
A:No. The Product User Manual is provided only for the BQE’s information as part of the Compliance Folder Materials.
Q:What configuration of the test sample should we prepare?
A:For RF Testing, 1-2 units of samples with SMA connector, or with RF cable should be submitted. For Profile testing, 2-3 final products with the declared pre-qualified hardware and software properly installed should be submitted.

BLE (BT4.0) 藍芽認證資料FAQs

勁達國際電子
藍牙4.0模組(蓝牙模块)供應商
Tel: 02-3234-0208

本規範部分內文已於2014/2/1變更
詳請可參閱以下連結
http://raytaccorp.blogspot.tw/2014/01/bt40-40-201421.html


Quoted from : http://www.hypertaiwan.com.tw/


Q:模組認證過的成品是否須要做RF Full test
A:若是使用已認證過的模組,請提供此模組的QD ID和RF test report.
不需重做RF Full test.但若此模組天線不內含或外接, 則會針對天線的部份抽測RF 4個test cases。
Profile測試為必要




Q:Listing Fee 是什麼樣的費用
A:任何project在通過測試後, listing在SIG網站上所需支付給SIG的Listing fee. Listing fee區分為兩種 :
USD10,000 – For Adopter Member of SIG
USD 5,000 – For Associate Member of SIG
Q:何謂BQB
A:BQB (Bluetooth Qualified Body). 我們一般統稱為藍芽認證
Q:QDID 是否須要印製在產品上
A:QDID必須要印製在產品,外包裝或者相關文件上。(三者擇一)
Q:SIG會員有分幾種
A:一般來說會員分三種,Promoter, Associate, Adopter
Promoter 意指當初創辦SIG 組織的會員(如: Ericsson,Microsoft Motorola…等等)。
Associate 意指繳交年費的會員。
Adopter 意指無付年費的會員。(即一般會員)
Q:Associate 年費如何計算
A:以公司整體年營業額為據,超過一億美金以上,年費為USD35,000。 未超過一億美金,年費為USD7,500。
Q:如何申請由Adopter更改為Associate
A:請與Bluetooth SIG member contact聯繫, 提出升級需求. SIG專員便會盡快與您聯繫並告知下一步驟.
點選Bluetooth SIG網頁下方標題Experience Membership Benefits內文中Member Relations, 即可直接以MAIL 方式與SIG聯繫
Q:為什麼已經付了listing fee卻查無QDID
A:通常匯款會需要1-2個工作天數, 若已匯款超過四天, 網路上仍查不到可用的QD ID.
請盡速與Bluetooth SIG contact window連絡, 或請所屬實驗室BQE幫忙作確認
Q:. 測試時間大約多久
A:一般測試時間為兩週, 視樣品測試情況而定
Q:報價需提供那些資料
A:產品名稱, 所使用的Component基本資料以及支援哪些 Profile
如果可以, 直接提供Product Spec.即可
Q:為什麼要測IOP這個Profile
A:只要認證產品為End product,都需依規定作IOP(Interoperability Profile)測試
Q:Listing fee 要什麼時候付錢
A:在listing 之前任何時間付款給SIG即可
Q:User manual會秀在SIG網站上嗎
A:不會, User manual僅供BQE審核
Q:請問如何準備測試樣本
A:RF : 請準備1-2個samples並接上SMA 頭, 或者 RF cable線
Profile : 請準備2-3 功能正常的完整樣品即可


值得一讀與分享的BT 4.0 (BLE)低功耗藍芽介紹

勁達國際電子
藍牙4.0模組(蓝牙模块)供應商
Tel: 02-3234-0208

藍牙規範部分已於2014/2/1變更
詳請可參閱以下連結
http://raytaccorp.blogspot.tw/2014/01/bt40-40-201421.html


Quoted : http://www.technical-direct.com/tech/20101101-bluetooth.html

藍牙技術聯盟(Bluetooth Special Interest Group,SIG)於2010年6月底時推出了最新主打低功耗的4.0版本,並預計於同年底或2011年初將有相關產品上市。由於目前藍牙技術的市場接受範圍似乎仍停留在以2.1+EDR為主,究竟4.0新規格的出現是否會帶來什麼樣的改變,已成為眾所關注的焦點,本文僅就4.0的規格特色、應用方向以及整個近距離傳輸市場後續的發展重點進行介紹。
不可忽略的藍牙4.0規格特色—低功耗、高射頻與雙工模式
◎目前主流藍牙規格

藍牙4.0的核心技術規範包括了傳統藍牙技術(例如Bluetooth 2.1+EDR)、藍牙3.0高速技術(Bluetooth 3.0 + High Speed)與最新的藍牙低功耗技術(Bluetooth low energy)三類,而其中的低功耗技術便是4.0的最大優勢特色。藍牙低功耗技術宣稱能節省達近九成的電力,相當適合使用“鈕釦型電池”裝置的市場,因為該技術能使裝置在閒置時休眠、僅在需要傳輸檔案時才啟動藍牙功能,因此能有效的降低電力耗損,以有效延長這些裝置更換電池的時間,因此能應用於小型傳感器像是計步器、血糖記錄器的使用。
至於在過去一直不變的傳輸距離上,過往藍牙的傳輸距離大約為30英尺(10公尺左右),在藍牙4.0規格中的有效傳輸距離則可明顯提升至最高約200英尺(60公尺左右)。製造商可以自行根據產品屬性調整其射頻範圍,讓藍牙傳輸的應用範圍有效拉大。
值得一提的是,藍牙4.0中開發出所謂的單工與雙工模式(Single Mode & Dual Mode)。透過單工模式能經由簡易的裝置搜尋、可靠的單點對多點資料傳輸設計與更先進的省電技術與加密方式,達到以最低成本實現超低電耗連線傳輸的目的。而雙工模式的運作架構,等於是可以與不同的藍牙規格(例如2.1 + EDR或是3.0 + HS)相結合,使用者可根據需求切換高速或者是低耗電的運作方式。因此歸納來說,單工模式可應用在一些需長時間連結但非持續傳輸資料的裝置,而雙工模式則適合可能同時需要與不同類型產品(像是電腦或手機)進行傳輸的裝置。
也就是說,藍牙4.0的技術規範讓傳統藍牙技術、藍牙3.0高速技術與藍牙低功耗技術三者,不僅可以獨立存在、也可以共同運用。舉例來說,一台血壓感測器如使用雙工模式,便可運用藍牙低功耗技術持續記錄人體的血壓高低,但同時也可使用傳統藍牙技術將記錄下來的數據資料傳送到電腦或其他裝置上。
◎藍牙4.0的核心架構:圖左為藍牙基本設計架構、圖中央為結合低功耗的雙工模式、圖右為Wibree技術的設計架構。 

藍牙技術之市場現況
就市面上的主流藍牙規格來區分類型,分別是強調增強資料傳輸率的藍牙2.0或2.1+EDR、主打高傳輸速率的藍牙3.0+HS以及甫公布的新增低功耗技術的藍牙4.0。
儘管在2009年4月藍牙技術聯盟就已推出新版的藍牙3.0規格並主打高速度傳輸,事實上,市面上的產品仍以2.1+EDR版本為主流,包括消費者最常使用的藍牙產品像是耳機、手機或是電腦周邊指向裝置如鍵盤、滑鼠,幾乎都還是以2.1+EDR的規格為大宗,甚至是筆記型電腦也只有一些較高階機種為藍牙3.0+HS規格。以今年最熱門的平板電腦產品為例(參見附圖),即便是蘋果今年甫推出的iPad、DELL的首款平板電腦產品Streak、或是以生產黑莓機著稱的RIM即將要推出PlayBook,這些新概念產品,也仍採用藍牙2.1+EDR規格,只有Samsung的Galaxy Tab採用藍牙3.0+HS版本。
◎目前市面知名平板電腦產品之藍牙規格 
這樣的現象與其他標準規格一代一代汰舊換新、逐漸導入新規格的現象,似乎不太相同。原因究竟何在?市場一般認為,目前藍牙技術的應用多半落在消費者的個人小檔案傳輸,像是透過藍牙耳機收聽音樂接聽電話、或是透過藍牙滑鼠鍵盤使用電腦,這類的小型資料傳輸通常較不需要高速支援。此外,追求高速度的代價換來的是較高的成本與較多的電力耗損,在產品沒有相對的效能需求之下,對廠商而言這似乎不是一個最划算的選擇,再加上當相應的產品都依舊使用原本的規格時,單方面的升級也不見得是必要的作為。
藍牙4.0的發展方向--運動管理、醫療健康照護與家用自動化 
那麼接下來的藍牙4.0,是否能夠取而代之呢?從藍牙4.0規格包山包海的兼容性,看得出其野心勃勃的姿態,至於未來發展似乎目前我們還不得而知。事實上,藍牙4.0的低功耗技術,在設計之初,便主打醫療與健康監控等特殊市場,藍牙技術聯盟的執行董事Michael Foley於此一技術發表之初,便強調藍牙低功耗技術的產品應用將主要落在運動管理、醫療健康照護與家用自動化(sports& fitness, healthcare, home automation)幾個面向上。
所謂的醫療市場為何適合這樣的應用呢?試想一下,在醫院有許多精密儀器的環境,經常會有禁止使用手機的規定出現,這是因為手機這類的電波頻率,極有可能造成電磁的干擾而影響醫療機器運作或是病患的休養,更遑論即使同樣是醫療儀器,像磁振造影機(Magnetic Resonance Imaging,MRI)這樣高電耗的設備,就有非常高的機會干擾到維生儀器的使用。因此,在醫院這樣需要監控病患病理狀態與生命跡象的環境,對低功耗的傳輸技術就有高度且必要的需求。
除了醫療單位這樣的場域,也可將藍牙低功耗技術的應用拓展到居家照護、健康監控與運動管理的範圍。在家中休養的病患可以使用藍牙技術的病徵感應器,來追蹤其健康狀況,家人也無須再亦步亦趨的時時提心吊膽;想記錄自己健身成效的運動者,也可在使用健身器材的過程中,透過個人的計步器、脈搏機或是健身器材上的顯示裝置,傳送並記錄個人的運動狀況到自己的藍牙裝置如手機或筆電中。
由英特爾發起、並由許多不同醫療技術與保健機構成立的Continua健康聯盟(Continua Health Alliance),日前便已決議將低功耗的藍牙4.0納入皆下來的標準傳輸技術。目前已有許多採用藍牙技術2.1+EDR規格的醫療產品像是血壓計、血壓監測螢幕、和計步器等,通過Continua健康聯盟的正式認證,接下來隨著新技術的導入,預期將有機會逐漸出現更多藍牙4.0規格的認證產品。
藍牙技術發展重點  聽測試專家怎麼說
面對藍牙4.0新技術規格的發展方向,目前於知名測試諮詢機構百佳泰測試實驗室擔任電腦產品測試中心主任之一,並為藍牙技術聯盟官方認可的BQE(Bluetooth Qualification Expert)高振家先生,有以下幾點獨到看法:

首先,是藍牙傳輸的穩定持續性,在低功耗的架構下是否能不受影響。我們都知道藍牙傳輸採用的是2.4GHz ISM頻段,與水的共振頻率相同、同時也有可能受到同頻段的其他傳輸技術所干擾。為避免這樣的狀況發生,藍牙使用調節性跳頻(Frequency Hopping),以每秒跳1600次的方式在80個頻道中轉換以減少干擾的可能性。不過在低功耗的狀態下,任何資訊的傳遞將會更容易受到同頻段其他物質或技術的影響,因此針對藍牙4.0的技術架構,更加需要透過詳細完整的驗證,來確認各個藍牙產品的穩定傳輸品質。
再者,是實際應用上的落實,是否能符合原先設計的目的性。藍牙4.0規格的一大特色便在於可以通過低功耗的技術,長時間以最低耗電模式運作,以記錄持續性的資料。然而,不能忽略的是,藍牙技術在傳輸數據資料時,至多只能與七個從屬裝置相串連,若是同時傳輸數據與音訊資料,則只能與兩個從屬裝置串連,這樣的狀況便會造成相當程度的應用限制。也因此,藍牙採用拓樸(Topology)的方式,將更多裝置彼此相連,使資料能在更多的裝置間相互傳輸,透過多對多的網狀拓樸(Mesh Topology)與一對多的星狀拓樸(Star Topology)使資料能彼此傳輸。不過值得注意的是,若是應用於醫療系統或健康監測上,不僅是要持續記錄病患病理變化,也極有可能出現緊急回報特殊狀況的情形,在這種情況下低功耗藍牙的拓樸是否能同樣有效即時地傳遞資料,絕對是實際應用上的重點。
最後,是產品製造商對於將產品導入藍牙4.0新規格的作業程序瞭解度。高振家先生因為本身為藍牙技術聯盟認可的BQE,經常會有廠商詢問關於”如何獲得藍牙認證”這樣的問題。面對這樣常見的狀況,高振家表示,其實藍牙技術聯盟官方制定的申請規範相當完整,但也因為規範內容的嚴謹細緻,以致於許多廠商經常會有一知半解的狀況。
◎藍牙產品標準認證測試流程
過去藍牙認證的方式是讓通過認證的產品取得一組QPID(Qualified Product ID),但這樣的作法會造成儘管內部設計架構沒有不同,只要是產品外觀改變或更換型號,就要重新申請認證。因此,為避免這樣不必要的時間與成本支出,藍牙技術聯盟新的作法則是讓所謂的”產品設計”取得一組QDID(Qualified Design ID),讓同樣的產品設計可以應用在不同產品上,也就是說,若是生產三款使用同樣藍牙設計的產品,則這三款產品皆歸屬於這一組QDID。同樣的,藍牙技術聯盟官網上的列表方式,也就由過去的QPL(Qualified Products List)改分為QDL(Qualified Design Listing)與EPL(End Product Listing)兩類,前者指的是通過驗證的產品設計,後者指的則是通過驗證的產品。如此一來,同樣的QDID廠商只需要負擔一次的listing fee,而消費者也更容易根據QDID選擇自己想要的產品。只是現實上,聯盟的規範與廠商的認知似乎還有一段落差,才會出現有產品未經官方認證就上市或是廠商多繳listing fee的狀況。
高振家也提到,藍牙技術在消費者生活中的普及已是不爭的事實,只是新規格要如何具體的導入、以及相關廠商是否會買單,則有待時間的證明。他所提到的三個關於實際驗證、應用落實與廠商採用的問題,只是就他身為BQE的經驗發現的幾個重點,至於實際上要如何讓藍牙規格持續被廣泛應用,勢必還有許多必須繼續發掘與關注的要素。
短距離/低功耗傳輸的競爭  藍牙技術何去何從?
就現況來看,在短距離的無線低功耗傳輸技術(ultra-low power short-range wireless technology)市場中,除了我們前面已多有著墨的藍牙4.0低功耗技術,Zigbee則是默默戮力耕耘的一項傳輸標準。
◎市面低功耗短距離傳輸規格
Zigbee與藍牙同樣被視為歸屬在個人區域網路 (Personal Area Network,PAN)的架構下,採用的是IEEE 802.15.4,工作頻率為868MHz、915MHz或2.4GHz,強調具有低成本、低耗電、雙向傳輸以及感應網路功能等特色,起初被定位於各種感測器的監控,目前則發展出多樣化的次標準,像是針對電源控制(Smart Energy Certified)、家庭自動化(Home Automation Certified)與電信服務(Telecom Service Certified)等認證規格,也積極拓展像是遙控及醫療電子等應用領域,目前已有上百樣產品獲得Zigbee的認證。Zigbee與現有藍牙技術的應用數量相比,似乎看起來又是小巫見大巫,儘管藍牙4.0的低功耗技術還需要時間發酵,不過依照眾家廠商對藍牙規格的愛戴程度,Zigbee勢必得要找出獨特的利基,才能更有異軍突起的機會。
除了現有低功耗技術規格Zigbee的苦心經營外,全球通訊晶片大廠高通(Qualcomm)也宣佈將於2011年推出名為”Peanuts”的低功耗傳輸技術,號稱將能以更低的耗電量與更大的傳輸速率,提供多樣化的應用方向,除了能應用在高通的最大市場—手機產品上,更可將技術發揮於安全監控或車載通訊等面向。此舉等於是對整個低功耗傳輸市場的宣戰,畢竟,高通掌握大量的晶片供應,根據產業界由上游影響下游的慣例,Peanuts的規格便極有可能出現在許多採用高通晶片的產品上。
若是再將範圍由低功耗傳輸技術拉大到整個近距離無線通訊(Near Field Communication,NFC),那麼即將出爐的Wi-Fi Direct則更被視為是藍牙的一大威脅。過去是藍牙由點對點(Peer-to-Peer)跨足到802.11協定轉換層,現在則是Wi-Fi Direct要回過頭來藉由點對點技術,吃下藍牙技術的大餅。透過Wi-Fi Direct,將可使各種像是手機、電腦、鍵盤、滑鼠、數位相機和印表機等產品直接以點對點方式傳輸資料,不需再透過另外的媒介或是藍牙所需的配對過程。
儘管規格未明,可以知道的是,Wi-Fi Direct能與所有現有的Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g/n產品相容,廠商或消費者只要透過軟體的升級,便能直接具備Wi-Fi Direct的功能,不需要更換設備或元件;在安全性上,則支援支援WPA2加密傳輸標準;而至於傳輸速度方面,在產品本身支援802.11n的前提下,可達到最高250Mbps的速度。光是這樣的表現看起來已經相當驚人,更遑論目前市面上已有不計其數支援既有Wi-Fi規格的產品。
除了Wi-Fi Direct外,由日系大廠索尼(Sony)等十五家公司共同主推的TransferJet,結合了NFC與超寬頻技術(Ultra-Wide Band,UWB),主打短距離傳輸(傳輸距離設定為三公分)與超高速度(理論值可達560Mbps),可將較大容量的影像內容或音樂檔進行高速傳輸。再加上多家大廠如三星電子(Samsung)、東芝(Toshiba)、日立(Hitachi)、佳能(Canon)、尼康(Nikon)等的支持,勢必將在接下來的相機、電視、手機等相關消費性產品中佔有一席之地。由此看來,隨著Wi-Fi Direct與TrandfetJet的步步進逼,藍牙似乎還有一場硬戰要打。
知名國際研究機構Gartner於2010年3月發表出的2011年的十大主流行動技術中,其中一項便是藍牙,Gatner同時看好藍牙3.0與4.0的未來發展,主要原因在於,市場上將有更多產品需要較高的資料傳輸速度以滿足更大型的圖像或影片傳輸需求、而低功耗傳輸在醫療保健領域也將有相當的應用空間。儘管如此,考量到其他低功耗傳輸技術像是Zigbee與Peanuts的威脅、以及Wi-Fi Direct的來勢洶洶,實際的市場發展究竟會如何、是否各個規格皆能擁有一片天?則有待時間的證明,不過可以確定的是,這些技術規格的進步發展,若皆能有效應用於更多不同領域像是醫療協助、安全監控或是家庭自動化等,則更能讓我們生活中所存在的科技,更加便利、也更加符合人性。

Edied by Raytac Corporation (www.raytac.com)
BLE (BT4.0) by Nordic nRF51822 Chip

2013年5月13日 星期一

A really comprehensive comparison between RF & BLE



Quoted from http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/wireless/resources/articles/comparison-of-rf-and-bluetooth.html

The key RF requirements for selecting a PC HID are cost (the PC HID market is extremely cost sensitive), security, range, power consumption, latency, interference, co-location, and ease of use. In general, standards win in the market because of interoperability of the devices. However, in the case of PC HIDs until 2009, only proprietary protocols have dominated the market. This can be attributed to the lack of any wireless standard optimized for the PC HID market in terms of cost, power and efficiency. With the advent of Bluetooth Low Energy Wireless technology aimed at low power applications, we can foresee a new wireless standard occupying the PC HID market. This article compares the Bluetooth 4.0 Wireless technology with the proprietary protocols in the HID market.

Proprietary RF solution

To get a reliable communication link in the 2.4 GHz RF Band, proprietary RF networks make use of their own protocols. A network operates in quiet channel to ensure that the bridge receives packets from nodes. If the channel becomes noisy, the network will hunt for a clean channel and settle there to resume with successful transmissions. If hardware supports Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) transmission, the protocol switches to this mode when interference is detected before starting to hunt for a quieter channel. As these protocols do not follow any IEEE standards, they are computationally light weight and optimized for specific applications with respect to power consumption and packet overhead.

Low-energy Bluetooth

Bluetooth wireless technology is a short range communication system intended to replace the cables connecting portable or fixed electronic devices and is an established IEEE standard. There are two forms of Bluetooth wireless technology systems: Basic Rate (BR) and Low Energy (LE). Both systems include device discovery, connection establishment and connection mechanisms. The LE system includes features designed to enable products that require lower current consumption, lower complexity, and lower cost than BR. The LE system is also designed for use cases and applications with lower data rates and has lower duty cycles. Devices implementing both systems can communicate with other devices implementing both systems as well as devices implementing either system.

Cost

The Wireless HID market is extremely cost sensitive. Wireless HID product developers are often concerned about selecting a cost-effective microcontroller as the RF Baseband controller for their application. The same microcontroller also needs to have enough Flash to hold the wireless protocol stack. As Bluetooth LE is a standard, the code size is far greater than proprietary protocols and increased cost because of the amount of extra Flash required. The Wireless HID market was dominated by proprietary protocols because of their light-weight protocol stacks. However, these proprietary networks also require an external bridge to be connected to the PC/Host so that they can talk to the other devices in the network. As Bluetooth is an established wireless standard, most of the PCs, mobile phones and other hand-held devices with high processing capabilities will have an integrated Bluetooth bridge with dual mode support (BR and LE support) in the future, which eliminates the need for an external bridge. The key to Bluetooth LE, unlike the Bluetooth that we’re all used to today, is its “always-off” technology. This allows designs implemented with Bluetooth LE to achieve years of battery life through the use of small coin-cell batteries. As Bluetooth is a standard maintained by the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group), any Bluetooth compliant device should be qualified by this certification board, incurring further development costs.

Power consumption

Proprietary RF chip manufacturers do not fully disclose power consumption on datasheets. They specify that the power consumption depends on the duty cycles. Developers must therefore obtain their own power consumption data using experimental board set-ups and their respective firmware test environments. As power is the main concern in the wireless HID market, the Bluetooth low energy standard specifies that an application should not consume more than 20mA of peak current and 15 mA in coin cell applications for a maximum of 3 ms data transfer. Devices using Bluetooth low energy Wireless technology will consume a fraction of the power of other Bluetooth-enabled products. In many cases, products will be able to operate more than a year on a button cell battery without recharging. In this way, it is possible to have, for example, small sensors operating continuously and communicating with other devices like a cell phone or PDA. Small devices like watches and sports sensors based on a stand-alone Bluetooth low energy implementation will enjoy many low-power consumption advantages. Dual-mode implementations, supporting Bluetooth and Bluetooth low energy, will use parts of the existing Bluetooth hardware, sharing one physical radio and antenna. Dual mode implementations will basically keep the same power consumption as classic Bluetooth technology.


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Reliability and security

The ability to resist interference from other technologies sharing the same frequency band is extremely important as this also impacts end-user performance. Robustness to interference in the 2.4-GHz world means the ability to reliably co-exist with 802.11b/g, Bluetooth, WirelessUSB, and a host of cordless phones and microwave ovens. Only an intelligent coding scheme with a good channel hopping methodology can ensure data reliability. While some radio devices like the CYRF6936 can employ DSSS (Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum) along with FHSS (Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum) transmission schemes, Bluetooth LE uses only adaptive frequency hopping technology common to all versions of Bluetooth technology. DSSS ensures data robustness while FHSS allows the wireless signal to hop to new channels once interference becomes too great. Lack of DSSS in Bluetooth is also a drawback compared to proprietary protocols as proprietary RF can co-exist in noisy environments without having to hop to a quieter channel. Bluetooth LE offers full AES-128 encryption to provide strong encryption and authentication of data packets. At the same time, this also consumes a considerable amount of packet overhead. To ensure a reliable and secure system, it is the developer’s discretion to adopt an existing proprietary protocol or a standard like Bluetooth based on the hardware capabilities of the device and the security level requirements of the application. For applications such as wireless mice, for example, little if any security is required.

Range

Wireless HID applications usually communicate within a short range, therefore the need for a range of more than 10 meters is very rare. If the desired range of communication is more, the power consumption level of the device will also increase. While proprietary RF protocols claim to support longer range with the help of external power amplifiers, Bluetooth LE spec suggests a possible range of over 100 meters.

Speed/throughput

Bluetooth LE supports an over-the-air data rate of 1Mbps, which is sufficient for wireless HID applications. However, application throughput is only 256kbps due to overhead. Proprietary protocols have the advantage of limiting packet overhead as per application requirements, and hence, may be able to support higher throughput. For applications like gaming mice, audio applications, and touch applications that require an effective throughput of greater than 250kbs, implementing Bluetooth LE will fall short of proprietary standards.

Topology

Most Wireless HID applications require either a point-to-point network (i.e., wireless keyboard or mouse) or a star network (i.e., sensor networks). Proprietary protocols optimize the protocol for a particular topology. Depending upon the targeted microcontroller and the methodology of addressing a slave device in the system, the number of slave devices that can be connected in a network is limited. Bluetooth LE technology is optimized for one-to-one connections while allowing one-to-many connections using a star topology. With the use of quick connections and disconnections, data can move in a mesh-like topology without the complexities of maintaining a mesh network. For example, a user using an integrated Bluetooth BR/LE Phone can record the pulse rate from a wrist watch, burned calories value from his shoes, and outside temperature from his cap when all these appliances are integrated with Bluetooth LE.

Certification

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is the body that oversees the development of the Bluetooth standards and licenses Bluetooth technology and trademarks to manufacturers. To become a licensee, a company must become a member of the Bluetooth SIG. The SIG also manages the Bluetooth SIG Qualification program, a certification process required for any product using Bluetooth wireless technology and a pre-condition of the intellectual property license for Bluetooth technology. The main tasks for the SIG are to publish the Bluetooth specifications, protect the Bluetooth trademarks, and evangelize Bluetooth wireless technology. An overview of the qualification process, including steps of the Qualification Process and Qualification Types and Fees, is available on the Bluetooth SIG public portal. In case of proprietary protocols, many manufacturers provide the qualification specification at low cost so that product developers can qualify the protocol at their end to minimize development expense and time.

Applications

Any application can easily make use of a proprietary RF given the ease of modifying the protocol. In this way, applications can be modified to adapt to their environment by changing power output levels, activating a more robust means of communication, or by moving to a quieter environment to communicate.

In a market full of narrow, local, proprietary connectivity solutions, Bluetooth low energy technology differentiates itself through its:

  • Ease of implementation and multi-vendor interoperability
  • Ultra-low peak, average and idle mode power consumption
  • Low cost of integration
  • Power handling
  • Resistance to interference
Bluetooth Low Energy technology extends the personal area network (PAN) to include Bluetooth enabled devices that are powered by small, coin-cell batteries. With low energy technology, sports and health care equipment, human interface (HIDs) and entertainment devices are enhanced. The technology can be built into products such as watches, wireless keyboards, gaming and sports sensors, which can then connect and communicate with host devices, such as mobile phones and personal computers.

The other hallmark features of Bluetooth LE include low cost and greater range. Since new Bluetooth LE chips are so small and inexpensive, this expands the feasibility of implementing them into everyday consumer products. For example, devices can be inside the sole of a shoe to track a person’s speed, distance, pace and other statistical information. By utilizing a low power wireless standard like a Bluetooth LE chip embedded in the sole, the battery life of these new chips exceeds the average life span of a pair of running shoes.

Though Bluetooth LE looks like a promising technology for many applications, there are certain concerns that the industry needs to address before adopting this technology for HID applications. Certainly there is the advantage of eliminating the need of external bridge. However, there is the question of when the electronics industry will be ready with integrated dual mode Bluetooth radios. Integrating a dual mode/single mode Bluetooth radio into hosts also raises the question of co-existence with WiFi, WiMax, Classic Bluetooth, and other 2.4 GHz technologies. This could be a major challenge for the developers to provide the complete solution. Until then, a short-term solution could be having an external bridge shipped with the PC. As Bluetooth LE is still in the development phase, the profiles for all applications are not finalized. This will impact the penetration of Bluetooth LE into the wireless HID domain for a considerable length of time.

Although Bluetooth is a standard protocol, it is not free from drawbacks in its binding methodologies. For example, imagine a classroom environment where many students are using Bluetooth mice and all of them try to get their mice bound at the same time to their respective PCs. Cross binding may occur with one mouse talking to another PC instead of the one to which it is intended to bind. Proprietary protocols like the ones offered by Cypress Semiconductors avoid these issues by using KISS (Keep It Simple Solution) bind, Manufacturing bind, and Auto binding techniques. Developers need to implement similar binding methodologies if they are targeting Bluetooth LE for these sorts of HID applications.

Like any product, adaptation is a vital component to success. With its low cost and low energy usage, Bluetooth LE seems to be a good competitor in the wireless HID market. However, while Bluetooth LE is enticing many companies to enter the wireless HID market, Bluetooth LE cannot succeed until it competes and implements better features than what proprietary protocols have been successfully implementing over the past decade.